Tanker Notes ||
Container Ship Operations ||
Ocean Navigation ||
Environmental management program - Ways to prevent pollution from ships
The shipping industry contributes to the pollution of the environment through everyday operations.
The following types and sources of pollution are recognised and will be examined in turn:
- Air emissions
- Antifouling paint
- Sewage & Garbage
- Oil release/spills
- Ballast water
- Ozone Depleting Substances
- Noxious substances
- Ship recycling
The purpose of Environmental Management program is report and review following:
When the Environmental Policy is reviewed by the Management and the objectives and targets are changed
When a new significant environmental aspect and impact have emerged
When a need to conduct a review has arisen as a result of an internal or external audit; and
When a need to conduct a review has arisen because of the building of a new ship .
It is the duty of ship owners and ship managers to refer to IMO guidelines, adhere to regulations and comply with international standards as set out in MARPOL. Vessel General Permit (VGP)
Stricter regulations apply to ships sailing in the waters of the United States. They must comply with the US Clean Water Act and hold a Vessel General Permit. Please also read both regulations where appropriate.
The latest version of Vessel General Permit (VGP) came into force on 19 December 2013. It regulates incidental discharges from vessels operating in US waters.
International and governmental regulations
The latest VGP includes:
In total there are 27 discharge streams identified in VGP. There are also
additional requirements applicable to certain vessel types.
- numeric ballast water discharge limits for most vessels
- more stringent effluent limits for oil to sea interfaces
- general effluent limits applicable to bilgewater, graywater (e.g. water from sinks, showers) and anti-fouling paints
- exhaust gas scrubber washwater.
EPA has also improved the efficiency of several of the VGP’s administrative requirements, including allowing electronic recordkeeping, requiring an annual report in lieu of the one-time report and annual noncompliance report.
The shipping industry contributes 13.6% of global sulphur dioxide emissions as well as large amounts of toxic nitrous oxide and particulate emissions. (IOP, 2011).
While the movement of cargo by ship is the least environmentally damaging mode of transport on a per tonne/nm basis, ships contribute significantly to global emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM).
It is estimated that ship exhaust gas emissions account for approximately 10% of global SOx emissions, 7% of global NOxemissions, and 2.7% of CO2 emissions.
As land-based pollution continues to decrease, through stricter environmental regulations by many nations, it is estimated that by 2020, ship emissions of NOx and SOx in the EU could surpass total emissions generated by all land-based mobile, stationary and other sources in Europe.
These emissions cause a variety of problems, including acid rain, global warming, and health problems, such as increased risk of premature death from heart and pulmonary diseases and worsened respiratory disease.
Two pollutants - fine particulate matter (PM) and ground level ozone - are now considered to have the greatest health impacts.
•PM pollution is estimated to cause 200,000 deaths per year in Europe.
•Ground level ozone comes from photo-chemical reactions between nitrogen oxide (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight.
While ships have low CO2 emissions per tonne/nm, its share of global CO2 emissions is still significant at 2.7%.
If emissions from shipping continue as projected, then they could constitute between 12% and 18% of the total CO2 emissions in 2050.
While progress is being made towards the reduction of NOx and SOx, emissions the IMO is coming under increased pressure to address the issue of GHG emissions.
NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides, NO and NO2(nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures.
NOx contributes to acid rain and respiratory problems. It can also combine with other pollutants to form toxic chemicals. Ground level ozone occurs as a result of photo-chemical reactions between NOxand Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight
Sulphur Oxides (SOx)
SOx gases are formed when fuel containing sulphur, such as coal and oil, is burned. SO2 dissolves in water vapour to form sulphuric acid and interacts with other gases and particles in the air to form sulphates and other chemicals that can be harmful to people and their environment.
SOx causes acid rain, respiratory problems in humans and plant and water damage. Despite the limit of 3.5% sulphur content in heavy fuel, it still contributes to over 10% of global sulphur emissions.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are hydrocarbon-based chemical compounds which can be both man-made and naturally occurring. There are many types of VOC; a well-known example is formaldehyde, which is found in paint and adhesives.
VOCs have high vapour pressures, meaning they can readily enter the surrounding air at low temperatures and can affect the environment and human health.
In addition to the regulations already passed, the IMO is currently preparing a regulation on the reduction of CO2emissions from shipping in the form of a CO2 indexing scheme.
In July 2009, IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), at its 59th session, finalised a package of technical and operational measures to reduce GHG emissions from shipping. This aimed at improving the energy efficiency for new ships through improved design and propulsion technologies and for all ships, new and existing, improving operational practices.
These measures, some of which could have significant impacts on shipping in the future, are covered in the next unit.
MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 13 outlines a stepped approach to reduce NOx emissions for all diesel engines with a power output of more than 130 kW installed. The regulation impacts ships constructed after 1st January 2000 and engines of 130 kW or above which have had a major conversion.
All engines which meet the above requirement will require an EIAPP Certificate.
Different tiers of NOx control have been introduced based on ship construction date, with the limitvalue determined on the basis of engine rated speed. However, in the case of additional or non-identical replacement engines, applicable tier will be set by the installation date. Tier III limits apply only inside NOx Emission Control Areas (North American ECA).
The revised MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 14, introduces a number of changes to the maximum allowable sulphur content of fuel oil, both inside and outside SOx and particulate matter Emission Control Areas.
EU directive EC 2005/33, introduced in January 2010, imposes a 0.1% limit on sulphur emitted by ships in EU ports.
Compliance using alternative
means such as exhaust gas
cleaning systems "scrubbing" is
Environmental management system
Environmental protection-operational control procedure for ships
Environmental protection- Communication procedures for ships
Environmental protection- operational control for shore office
Environmental protection-training and awareness for ship crew
Environmental training for shore staff
Other info pages !
Ships Charterparties Related terms & guideline
Stevedores injury How to prevent injury onboard
Environmental issues How to prevent marine pollution
Cargo & Ballast Handling Safety Guideline
Reefer cargo handling Troubleshoot and countermeasures
DG cargo handling Procedures & Guidelines
Safety in engine room Standard procedures
Questions from user and feedback Read our knowledgebase
ShipsBusiness.com is merely an informational site about various aspects of ships operation,maintenance procedure,
prevention of pollution and many safety guideline. The procedures explained here are only indicative,
not exhaustive in nature and one must always be guided by practices of good seamanship.
User feedback is
important to update our database. For any comment or suggestions please Contact us
//Home //Terms and conditions of use
Copyright © 2015 www.shipsbusiness.com All rights reserved.