ship handling

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Cargo ships engine breakdown in a seaway -How to deal with engine trouble

Attention To Engine Trouble : Alert other nearby vessels by means of whistle, VHF, Lights or Shaped objects for Not Under Command. When the vessel is still capable of sailing ( or has steerage), move to a safe place first. Use the rudder and bow thruster to best navigational advantage. Then, anchor or drift around for repairs.
When drifting, select a place away from the shore or a sea route, taking into consideration effects of ocean and tidal currents, wind and waves.

When anchoring in deep waters, take the winding ability of the windlass into consideration

Towing or assistance of tug

A salvage contract shall be concluded based on instructions form the Company, except when danger such as stranding is impending. When you are pressed for time and a tug boat is standing by the vessel, try to conclude a towage contract to the extent possible.

When it is inevitable, conclude a salvage contract in compliance with Lloyds Open Form (LOF)

There was a case reported when the vessel had become unable to operate immediately after leaving the port and had assistance of a tug boat for leaving the quay, and later on, they had been charged for extraordinary rescue expenses.
To avoid such trouble, specify that it is important to confirm the contents of the contract prior to starting work.

Damage report

A damage report shall be submitted . Sketches shall be used wherever useful and possible.

When it is determined that it is impossible to repair the damage at sea, the Company shall be contacted immediately for the necessary arrangements for shore assistance.

When under a time charter contract, engine trouble immediately places the vessel on off-hire. All communication with the Charterers shall be carried out via the Company.

Deviation for repair

When temporary calling to a port other than a destination port for repair or moving to a safe place for repair at sea, record carefully the exact deviation Start and Completion Times, and the ROB of Fuel oil (FO / DO), etc.

The deviation report shall be completed in consultation with the Company.

Use of anchors

In water too deep for an anchor to reach the bottom, lowering the anchor or anchors to about 60 fathoms will reduce downwind progress. The anchor and cable may have the effect of a drogue or sea anchor and should help to keep the ship"s head into the weather. It should be noted that recovering 60 fathoms of cable and anchor should be possible as this amount is normally within the design capabilities of most windlasses.

Once the ship is in a water depth where the anchor can find the bottom, use of anchors to arrest the ship"s movement should be attempted. If the bottom is sand or mud, it may be possible for the ship"s movement to be slowed or even stopped completely by slowly lowering the anchor until it begins dragging along the bottom.

For larger ships, the scope of chain should be short at first and later it should be gradually increased as the ship"s speed decreases. This action should bring the ship"s head into the weather and slow her speed over the ground.. The chance of successfully using anchors on a rocky bottom is much lower, but nevertheless should be attempted if this is the only alternative available.

If disablement is limited to loss of steering, careful use of the engines may enable the ship to carry out his operation with a much better chance of success. Also, use of the engines can enable the ship to maintain a safe position if the weather causes the anchor(s) to drag.

For large tanker of more than 150,000 tonnes dwt, the anchoring system normally has the capability of stopping a ship with a maximum speed over the ground of about 0.5 knots and a length of cable of between 6 to 10 times the water depth, in good holding grounds. These anchor systems can normally withstand a 60 knot wind without current or waves if an ordinary stockless anchor is used, or a 60 knot wind with a 2 to 3 knot current and waves of up to 6 metres if a high holding power anchor is used.

Anchors should be made ready for use at the earliest opportunity. Deteriorating conditions may prevent or delay this action from being taken at a later time.

Any decision to lower anchors should not be clouded by the fear that they may be lost if they cannot be raised later.





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