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Bunkering arrangement - Fuel oil handling safety guideline for cargo ships

FO Handling : The Chief Engineer shall endeavor to prevent troubles caused by abnormal qualities, excess or shortage in volume, difference in specifications, and the like of FO, paying great attention to the following items.
Bunkering arrangement :Bunkering arrangement shall be made according to below guideline:
1. Discussion on Bunkering volume (in metric ton) and type of Fuel (IFO 180, 280,380,Bunker C,DO) to be loaded.
2. In-house ordering.

3. Ordering to supplier. Confirmation of the ordering arrangement.

4. Notice to local agent and confirmation. Items to be confirmed: Bunkering volume, type of Fuel and other specifications of FO, and suppliers name.

5. Notice to the vessel about completion of FO arrangement.

6. Notice to management ashore about completion of FO arrangement.

7. Mutual confirmation between local agent and FO supplier. Items to be confirmed: Movement of the vessel, bunkering volume, type of Fuel and other specifications (including viscosity, sulphur content and density).

8. Communication and confirmation between the vessel and agent. Items to be confirmed: Oil suppliers name, date and time, place, bunkering volume, type of Fuel, and other specifications (including viscosity, sulphur content and density)

9. Mutual confirmation between the vessel and management company (if any abnormality exists in bunkering volume, type of and other specifications of FO).

(2) Decision of Bunkering volume

The Chief Engineer shall calculate the bunkering volume based on the discussions with the Operation Section, taking the following items into consideration, and obtain the Masters approval:

(a) Maximum bunkering volume shall be calculated on basis 90% or under for deep tank, or made 85% or under for double bottom tank of each FO tank capacity in principle, however 80% or under of the final loading tank for double bottom tank if possible.

(b) Bunkering volume shall be calculated according to the Standard for reserve FO keeping

(c) Mixed loading of existing FO and replenishing FO shall be avoided as far as possible.


Precautions When Bunkering

With the cost of bunkers amounting to 50% of the total operating costs of ships, shipowners need to constantly seek ways to monitor and control this huge expenditure. Typically, physical custody transfer of bunkers is made thousands of miles away from the contracting parties' offices, with neither buyer nor seller being present during actual bunkering operations.

When disputes arise over quantity and quality transferred, investigations after delivery are usually inconclusive if the shipboard personnel of the receiving vessel are not properly and/or fully informed and/or trained. Protests, legal fees, management time, loss of goodwill, stress, etc. all add on to costs with usually neither party actually concluding with certainty what transpired on board.


Diligence required

It is vital that the ship's officers and engineers involved in the bunker receiving operation are diligent, alert and have a common sense approach. Proper temperature measurement can save thousands of dollars. The ship's "before receipt" quantity of bunkers already on board as well as the "before delivery" quantity of the relevant tanks of the delivering barge/road tankers should be determined prior to bunkering operations with proper and constant monitoring of all relevant and corresponding quantities until full delivery.

After bunkering, the chief engineer will normally be requested to sign a Bunker Delivery Receipt (BDR) and in doing so, he should clearly remark thereon any shortfall in quantity, failing which tens of thousands of dollars will be lost which will be compounded may times over to millions of dollars in just a few years time for an average-sized ship.


Fuel Samples Essential

Fuel specification analysis is an essential part of an effective fuel management system. However, money spent on testing any sample will be wasted unless every effort is made to obtain representative samples.

The importance of obtaining a representative fuel sample during a bunkering operation that is acceptable to all parties involved cannot be over-emphasised. How the sample is taken is extremely important as "the results are only as good as the sample received" DNV's Dag Olav Halle noted in his speech at the Thome Ship Management symposium in Manila.



As bunkering fuel tend to be non-homogenous, samples taken during the same bunker delivery operation at different locations and times are often not identical, i.e., not deemed to be similarly "representative". A non-representative sample will obviously result in analysis results providing misleading information leading to poor performance of ship's engines or damage to engines and in a worst case scenario, endangering the safety of the ship, her cargo and the lives of all crew onboard.


Samplers for Sale

Approved line samplers are available from some international bunker sample analysis organisations like DNV Petroleum Services, for use at the point of bunker custody transfer. It would be reasonable for shipowners/ charterers / operators or even the bunker brokers to ask the bunker sellers and / or physical suppliers to agree in writing at the time of contracting that the point of custody transfer shall be at the receiving ship's manifold.

In January 2002 an amendment to the Singapore Standard CP: 60: 1996 came into effect, which means that the custody transfer sample shall be taken at the manifold of the receiving vessel. Should a dispute arise, the custody transfer sample shall be the official sample for asserting the quality of the bunkers delivered. However there is provision that where it is impossible or impractical the sampling may be carried at the manifold of the bunker tanker.

It would be prudent for shipowners and operators to provide their vessel(s) with appropriate line samplers and appropriate sample container / seals, etc. Usually three, one litre samples are taken, which should have secure labels and security seals with unique identification numbers. Each sample label shall contain the following information:- In the event that the bunker supplier's representative does not wish to witness the sample, the master / chief engineer should make a note of protest. We advise against accepting labels already completed by the bunker supplier before bunkering has started, as this will destroy the evidential value of the labels. The supplier retains one sample and one is sent to the laboratory for analysis. Here we suggest that you also send the bunker delivery receipt together with the sample to the laboratory. The vessel will retain the third sample and we recommend that it is stored in a dust free environment.


Separate Storage

Fresh bunkers received should be stored separately in segregated tanks on board the ship in the first instance. During bunkering operations, continuous drip samples should be taken and closely monitored. These samples should be sent for full specification bunker fuel analysis by a reputable laboratory or the designated laboratory if the vessel is under a Bunker Fuel Analysis Programme.

Freshly delivered bunkers should not be used by the vessel until the analysis results reveal that all required specifications are met. Shipowners charterers should always consider appointing reputable bunker surveyors to protect their interests in any bunkering operation.

However, even if surveyors are in attendance, all relevant crew members MUST still remain vigilant at all times and independently record all operational difficulties and discrepancies experienced. Such contemporaneous records will prove very useful in any subsequent disputes.


Preserve the Evidence!

In the unfortunate event that a dispute concerning the quantity or quality of the bunker does arise, preserving your evidence will be of paramount importance. Assuming that the sampling procedures described above were followed and the information completed on the labels with the sample put into three different containers and witnessed, that will substantially assist you in any litigation. It is important to ensure that the bunker supplier is placed on notice of any claim s quickly as possible. Owners / Charterers should review their bunker supply contracts as there are usually stringent requirements regarding notification of claims.


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