ship handling

Tanker operation : Inspection Of Cargo Work Equipment And Machinery



The Chief Engineer and Chief Officer shall jointly be responsible for the inspection and maintenance of the following cargo oil transfer equipment and machinery before entering port. The Chief Engineer shall prepare and maintain the equipment manuals of machinery and equipment, including critical components related to cargo operations including the procedures for their Emergency operation.

Inert Gas System:

Inert gas system including oxygen analyzer and alarm system shall be in good operational condition.

oil tankers at anchorage


Main points to be inspected:
i) Operational conditions of Blowers

ii) Conditions of Scrubbers and Deck Seal Water Tank

iii) Operational conditions and calibration of oxygen analyzers

iv) Operational condition of each Alarm systems

v) Operational condition of Regulating valves (manual and automatic)

vi) Operational condition of Recirculation valves (or Excess gas control valves)

vii) Operational conditions of Cargo tank Pressure-Vacuum valves (HVV) and PV breakers

Gas Indicator:

Calibrate all Fixed and Portable Oxygen Meters and Combustible& Toxic Gas indicators. Ensure that filters, sensors, piping (hoses), casing integrity, flow indicators and batteries (for portable equipment) are in good order.

Level Gauges:

As to operational conditions of tank level gauges and High Level (e.g. 95%) and Overfill (e.g. 98%) alarms, refer to the manufacturer’s set values in the manual. The same values shall be displayed at location in the CCR. Periodic verification of such alarm settings is to be carried out. Also, refer to ‘Cargo Tank Level Gauge Alarm setting and Portable Gauge Record’ as listed in “Quarterly Testing Record of Miscellaneous Equipment”

Routine monitoring of the accuracy of the fixed gauges are carried out using “Cargo Tank Level Gauge Check Record at Loading Ports”

Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System (ODMCS):

Every Month, prior to loading, when the vessel is in ballast condition, the ODMCS should be checked with simulation and verified for proper operation.

The automatic function of the Overboard valve and slop tank valves are to be verified, using “ODMCS Test Record” and the manufacturers guidelines.

Communication System:

Check operational condition of all portable communication devices, including the fixed P.A (Public Address) system.

Tank Cleaning Machine

Check and record operational condition of COW system in accordance with the COW operations manual.


Hydraulic Oil System for Cargo / Ballast Remote Control Valves

Ensure that the hydraulic oil expansion tank, storage tank is full, and that all associated pressure, temperature and low level/pressure indicators and alarms are in good operating condition.

The level and temperature of the hydraulic oil should be regularly monitored / marked during cargo operations.

Hydraulic system for remotely operated Valves for cargo / Ballast systems: The function test of alarms, level and adequate quantity of hydraulic oil must be confirmed, prior to its use. As far as practicable, the level should be monitored / temporarily marked at different ship’s trim, as it would correspondingly vary.

No load driving with opening Pressure-Return By-pass Valve for 10 min. is recommended every time before use, for air purging from System to prevent vibration.


Hydraulic Oil Power System for Deck Machineries

Mooring Hydraulic Power pack- running test: The mooring system, including the MAROLL (remote) Controllers shall be checked and verified for safe operation.

Hose Handling Crane must be operated and checked for leaks.

Safety mechanisms should be inspected. The area should be cleaned and carefully inspected by appropriate personnel.

The Company shall implement a process to ensure that power supplies to the Mooring Equipment including steam, hydraulic or electric type are sufficient and properly protected. This includes but is not limited to the following:

> Spray shields/guards in place to protect personnel and neighboring equipment from leaks;

> Where the power supply is a single hydraulic motor, alternatives available (spare motor, cross connection forward and aft); and

> Suitable fire monitoring and extinguishing systems made available for monitoring enclosed spaces where power supplies for mooring equipment are located.


Regular Inspection / Testing For Cargo Handling Equipment


Before Entering for the 1st Loading / Discharging Port

The following checks, tests and verification are required prior to every 1st Loading and 1st Discharging Ports .

Pump Room Preparation:

i) Pump Room Bilge High Level Alarm function verification test.

The audible and visual confirmation at various locations to be verified (CCR, Navigational Bridge, ECR, etc)

ii) Pump Room Emergency damper test- full movement and to be confirmed (at least 3 to 4 times). On completion, it is to be set at the ‘Lower Extraction’ mode.

iii) Sea Chest Valve integrity testing: Ensure the short piece is drained of all liquid, prior to carrying out the test. Refer to the guidance as laid out in ICS/OCIMF guidelines for ‘Prevention of Oil Spillages through Cargo Pump room Sea Valves’.
The holding test should be for minimum 15 minutes

Cargo Tank System & Equipment:

i) Audible and visual confirmation of all Alarms and their outputs are to be verified at all locations. It is necessary to check that the output to such alarms are not silenced, prior to arrival ports. Manufacturers set values of ullage should be set on the fixed level gauge system and suitably displayed.

ii) Cargo Oil Tanks and Slop Tanks PV Valves- Lift Check: Such lift check is to be conducted for the pressure side, as well as the vacuum side. Confirm no leakage of IG from the system.


Double Hull Operation

The following checks, shall be in accordance with the Double Hull Operating Standards : The following checks shall be carried out immediately after loading the adjacent cargo tank and for three (3) consecutive days, after loading. Subsequently, repetitive checks shall be carried out weekly thereafter, until discharging of that adjacent spaces.

HC (Hydrocarbon) and H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide) measuring record in space adjoining with the Cargo Oil tanks during the laden passage

Regular monitoring of integrity of double hull spaces is to be carried out as per above.

Ballast Tank Water Surface Visual Check :

This test shall be positively carried out before discharging the ballast water. The same may be done using an oil absorbent material attached to a float, using the peep holes as provided.

Voyage Record of Oxygen density in Cargo tanks :

This shall be monitored prior to loading port (s). H2S content shall also be recorded, if found.

After Loading, H2S content shall also be recorded, if found.

Before Entering Discharge Port (O2)

Before Crude Oil Washing



Before Entering for the 1st Discharging Port:

The following checks, tests and verification are required prior to every 1st Discharging Port using

Pump Alarm / Trips test:

The COP separator is to be filled and the COP is to be running as well, prior to conducting such tests. Trips are to be verified at various locations.

Inspection of the following Alarm systems and Safety systems:

High temperature Alarm systems / Trips for pump casings and bearing temperature gauges, as fitted.

Preventive devices against abnormal high revolution of pumps (High Speed Trips)

Operational conditions of Emergency Shutdown System for pumps

LO low pressure test

As per relevant ANNEX in “Tanker Discharging Checklist” and other ship specific records. Seals of pumps, along with related piping system are to be checked.

Gauges and display of same are to be verified. On completion, ensure system is efficiently drained. Also, running records of monitoring parameters are maintained.

Cargo Oil Pumps, stripping pump and eductors test:

Seals of pumps, along with related piping system are to be checked for leaks. Gauges, Tachometers, Alarm systems and displays are to be verified. On completion, ensure system is efficiently drained.

Pressure gauges and connections:

Operational check and comparisons for suction and discharge pressure gauges for Cargo / Ballast pumps, CCR (Cargo Control Room) remote pressure indicators for Eductors, Tank Washing Lines, and Inert Gas Main Lines are to be done.

Vapor Emission Control System, if applicable

To be tested the Oxygen Analyzing System as per Builder’s instruction.

System piping is to be inspected and drained as per Builder’s instruction, but not exceed 6months interval.


Inspection Of Cargo Lines And Tank Washing Lines Before Entering Port

All Cargo exposed system, piping, valves and lines shall be inspected prior to Entry every Port. The Chief Officer is responsible for the testing of the following lines prior to Discharge port entry:

Pressure Test before Entering Discharge Port: In accordance with “Tanker Discharging Checklist” , and “Crude Oil Washing Checklist” , the cargo lines are required to be pressure tested prior arrival to 1st discharging port.

Conduct the pressure test of Cargo lines and cargo valves using cargo oil to 12 kg/cm2. This is basis the following: 60 % of the rated pressure for the weaker link in the cargo system (which is the valves on discharge side rated at 16 kg/cm2) corresponds to 9.6 Kg/cm2. Basis this, 1.25 times this working pressure will correspond to 12 kg/cm2. This factor of safety is taken considering the JIS design standards.

Conduct the pressure test of COW (tank washing) lines using cargo oil to 12 kg/cm2 or 1.25 times the working pressure as mentioned in the COW Manual, which ever is lesser.

Prior to starting such testing procedure at sea, follow all relevant safety precautions and preparations as laid out and covered under the “Ship / Shore Safety Checklist”

A careful check is to be carried out of the system before entering port to detect for leaks. This test should be conducted just prior to arrival the discharge port. (within a week for discharging) This rules out possibilities of leakage due to pipeline movement (flexing) in heavy weather especially at dresser coupling (expansion joints).

Sufficient time should be allocated for repairing, if found any leakage.

Re-test is required, after repairs to the system.

After overhaul or renewal of an expansion joint (rubber rings), on completion, it must be pressure tested and inspected with care since leakage can occur if the new packing does not easily fit the existing pipe.

For short voyages, carry out above pressure test as far as possible.

It is of importance to note that the discharge (delivery or top lines) side of the Cargo / COW pipelines are usually rated- at 16 kg/cm2 , however, the suction (bottom lines) side lines have much lesser rating- about 5 kg/cm2. Care should be taken not to apply such high pressures to any suction side lines.

If carrying multi-grade cargoes, choose the most suitable cargo which will minimize the effects of contamination. Efficient draining of lines to be considered. If unable to maintain the above, the office is to be informed.

If terminal requirement for above test is higher than those as mentioned herein, the company is to be informed.

Upon the completion of pressure tests, drain oil from the lines into the designated cargo oil tanks.

Suitable marking should be carried at conspicuous place on successful completion

As a best practice, at the same time, it is recommended to carry out the pre-arrival checks for the Inert Gas System, Cargo Oil Pumps Trip tests and Ballast Pumps.

If there is an opportunity for internal inspection of tanks, pipe lines in tanks shall be pressure-tested using the stripping pump (with taking precaution such that at any given time, the desired test pressure shall not be exceeded) or hydrostatic head of ballast water to detect any irregularity.


Measures if a defect is observed on Cargo / Ballast Pipes

Principle instruction for Repairing - Each part shall be inspected according to the “Planned Maintenance System” and “Safety Officer’s Checklist”.

The defective parts thus discovered shall be investigated to determine possibility of repair by the ship’s crew. A crack or hole in a pipe line shall be promptly repaired through every effort and device of the crew. All leaks found must be repaired in a permanent manner as soon as possible. Soft patches (temporary repair) on cargo lines are totally unacceptable.

Defect Record

Outstanding deficiencies generated after the last dry-docking shall be reported to the Office every time by submitting the “Defect Record” .

Repair Orders are required to be submitted to Technical Superintendent in charge and they shall be carefully reexamined before the next dry-docking.


Docking Repair

Satisfactory inspection of pipe lines shall be carried out before preparation of the “Docking Repair Specifications.” There are many cases where a defective pipe was overlooked and not repaired during the dry-docking repairs, leading to pipeline failure after the dry-docking.

To take appropriate measures in an emergency, at least the following spare parts shall be kept onboard:

Seat rings for valves (at least two sets of the sizes for those in use).

Packing’s for expansion joints (at least two sets of the sizes for those in use)

Hydraulic pipes and union joints.

Pipe bands, adhesive and others.


Pressure Test Of Ballast Lines

During routine inspection of ballast tanks during on loaded voyages, the ballast lines shall be pressure tested for tightness. (Static head only, not more than 3.0 kg/cm2)

Inspection of pipes dedicated to Ballast tanks.

As a practice, prior to entry of ballast tanks for routine inspection, as far as possible, the following checks should be done :

Carry out water hydrostatic head pressure tests.

Inspect pipes and joints in tanks every time when tanks are entered.

Confirm no sign of oil is found on the surface of ballast water after ballasting and before de-ballasting




Inspection According To United State Regulations

The following machinery and equipment require an annual inspection or test in accordance with US Coast Guard Regulations (33 CFR Part 156.170 and Part 155).

(Enter the results and date of the inspection and test in the log book)

1) Each transfer system relief valve must open at or below the pressure at which it is set to open

2) Each pressure gauge must show pressure within 10 percent of the actual pressure;

3) Each loading arm and each transfer pipe system, including each metallic hose, must not leak under static liquid pressure at least 1 1/2 times the maximum allowable working pressure;

4) Each item of remote operating or indicating equipment, such as a remotely operated valve, tank level alarm, or emergency shutdown device, must perform its intended function.




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