Tanker Notes ||
Container Ship Operations ||
Ocean Navigation ||
Container ship meeting with heavy weather - Seaworthiness at sea
The risks associated with containerized cargo are of course generally brought into sharp focus if the carrying vessel encounters Heavy weather conditions or if the vessel routing heightens the impact of the weather upon the ship and cargo.
Stoppage of the main engine in heavy weather conditions could result in violent rolling, pitching and heaving motion of the vessel, highly stressing cargo securing equipment on deck.
This may result in failure of cargo securing equipment and consequent loss of deck cargo containers overboard.
Safety permitting, this shall be done more frequently if vessel is encountering heavy weather or lashings are found loosening frequently due to effect of ships motion.
In heavy weather conditions where it is unsafe for ships crew to venture out on deck for purposes of checking deck cargo securing, master shall consider his ship handling options and heave to if required for carrying out same and ensuring safety of the vessel and its cargo.
Seaworthiness at sea
The obligation on the owner to provide a seaworthy vessel (i.e. a vessel that is technically seaworthy, cargo-worthy
and fit for the intended voyage) before the voyage commences is absolute . The common law
recognises, however, that the merchant ship which is absolutely watertight in all weather conditions has not yet been
built, since even the most well-found vessel will contort in a seaway, allowing water to penetrate the hatchcover
seals, etc. Owners therefore cannot guarantee the seaworthiness of their vessels after leaving port, when they
become subject to various perils of the sea.
The requirements of the common law, as modified by Article III(1) of the Hague and Hague-Visby Rules , will be met if, at the time the vessel left her berth, she was in a seaworthy condition as far as could be
ascertained by the exercise of due diligence (i.e. the reasonably careful inspection) by the owner, master and
officers to see that she was ready for sea.
The Hamburg Rules do not expressly mention seaworthiness or an obligation to exercise due diligence. However,
the carrier’s obligation under Article 5(1) to prove that he, his servants and his agents took all measures which could
reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences, would appear to impose an obligation to
exercise due diligence at all times and all stages of the voyage.
A merchant ship would probably be deemed unseaworthy in law if she proceeded on a voyage without:
Provided the vessel departs on her voyage in a seaworthy condition , she will
normally remain covered by her insurers throughout the voyage to the next port, even when, technically, her
seaworthiness may have been compromised by some accident, e.g. heavy weather damage or seawater shipped in
heavy seas. The vessel would not be covered on her next voyage (or leg of the voyage), however, if she left the next
port of call without her seaworthiness being restored.
- valid statutory certificates;
- a valid Certificate (or Interim Certificate) of Class;
- proper stowage and securing of cargo;
- cargo care system in good order;
- a properly qualified master and crew;
- the proper crew complement, as set out in the Safe Manning Document;
- appropriate charts and publications for the intended voyage, corrected up-to-date; and
- sufficient bunkers, stores and provisions for the voyage.
Hazards of navigation in heavy weather & countermeasures
Hull stress and Torsional moment in Container Ship Operation
Larger wind area in Container Ship Operation
Fore-ward Visibility in Container Ship Operation
Ship Encountering Parametric Roll In A Seaway
Action by vessels navigating in congested water
Action by vessels navigating in an area of restricted visibility
How to confirm stabilty condition ?
How to maintain watertight integrity?
Guide to watch officer for ships navigation ?
Heavy weather countermeasures for prudent navigator
Checklist for calculating stability and hull strength for cargo ship
Container Ship navigation - passage planning guideline
Navigation in cold districts and countermeasures
More shipboard operation and safety matters
Safe anchoring - planning and operational guidance for cargo ships
Anchor watch check item - deck officers guideline
How to deal with a damaged anchor?
How to recover a lost anchor ?
What is stranding ? Investigation of possibility of self-refloating and urgency of danger
What are the emergency procedures for loss of anchor and chain?
In case of damage to anchor and chain when to claim for '' general average"?
Ships arrival in ports - check item prior entry
Ships navigation in restricted visibility check items
Rules of ships navigation in restricted visibility
Ships navigation in confined water - matters that require attention
Securing your vessel for sea passage - when to check and what to check
Collecting Information and Data for Passage Planning
Other info pages !
Ships Charterparties Related terms & guideline
Stevedores injury How to prevent injury onboard
Environmental issues How to prevent marine pollution
Cargo & Ballast Handling Safety Guideline
Reefer cargo handling Troubleshoot and countermeasures
DG cargo handling Procedures & Guidelines
Safety in engine room Standard procedures
Questions from user and feedback Read our knowledgebase
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