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Turning circle diameter for a Container ship




Turning circle diameter trials

Merchant ships usually turn in a circle having a diameter of about 3–4 times the length between perpendiculars (LBP). The larger the rudder, the smaller will be the Turning circle diameter(TCD). During the TCD manoeuvre, the ship will experience transfer, advance, drift angles and angle of heel (see Figure ).

The maximum angle of heel must be recorded. If the ship has Port rudder helm this final angle of heel will be to Starboard and vice versa. Again, this is due to centrifugal forces acting on the ship’s hull.

This manoeuvre is carried out with the ship at full speed and rudder helm set at 35°. The ship is turned completely through 360° with say Starboard rudder helm and then with Port rudder helm (see Figure ).

Turning circle diameter :There will be two TCD of different diameters. This is due to the direction of the rotation of the propeller. For most single screw Merchant ships, the propeller rotates in a clockwise direction when viewed from aft to forward part of the ship. It does make a difference to the Turning circle diameter (TCD).

It should be observed in Figure that at the beginning of the Port turning manoeuvre, the ship turns initially to Starboard. There are reasons for this. Forces acting on the rudder itself will cause this move at first to Starboard. Larger centrifugal forces acting on the ship’s hull will then cause the vessel to move the ship on a course to Port as shown in this diagram.

Turning cicle diameter for a typical containership

Fig. TCD manoeuvres. Ship run at full speed with rudder helm 35° P or S throughout this trial.

Ship model tests and Ship Trials have shown that the TCD does not change if this trial is run at speeds less than full speed. If these trials had been carried out in shallow waters, the TCD could have been double that measured in deep-water conditions.

Turning circle diameter for a typical containership
Turning circle - Normal full loaded condition with maximum rudder angle full ahead RPM


Turning circle diameter for a typical containership

Turning circle - Normal ballast condition with maximum rudder angle full ahead RPM


Turning circle diameter for a typical containership

Turning circle - Loaded condition with maximum rudder angle half ahead RPM


Turning circle diameter for a typical containership

Turning circle - Normal ballast condition with maximum rudder angle half ahead RPM


Fig:Turning circle – examples ‘Modern Container Vessel’ 4,318 TEU

(comparing Loaded Condition against Ballast Condition with a maximum rudder angle or hard over at 35°).


Details of ship and operation:

Length OA 292m
Deadweight at design Draught 61,787MT Calm weather.
Breadth 21.7m
Lightship tonnage 20,560MT
No current.
Draught 13.5m
Service speed 24.3 knots
Clean hull.

(Water depth for turn example twice that of the draught)


Diameters

The greatest diameter scribed by the vessel from starting the turn to completing the turn (ship’s head through 180°) is the tactical diameter. The internal diameter of the turning circle where no allowance has been made for the decreasing curvature as experienced with the tactical diameter is the final diameter.

Transfer

This is defined by that distance which the vessel will move, perpendicular to the fore and aft line at the commencement of the turn.The total transverse movement lasts from the start of the turn to its completion, the defining limits being known as the transfer of the vessel when turning



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A deeply laden vessel will experience little effect from wind or sea when turning, but a vessel in a light or ballasted condition will make considerable leeway, especially with strong winds. ....

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When a vessel fitted with a right-hand fixed propeller, she would benefit from the transverse thrust effect, and her turning circle, in general, will be quicker and tighter when turning to port than to starboard. ....

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Ships navigation -Factors Affecting Turning circle diameter
Merchant ships usually turn in a circle having a diameter of about 3–4 times the length between perpendiculars (LBP). The larger the rudder, the smaller will be the Turning circle diameter(TCD). During the TCD manoeuvre, the ship will experience transfer, advance, drift angles and angle of heel (see Figure )....









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