ship handling

Home page|| Tanker Notes || Container Ship Operations || Ocean Navigation ||

Increased Risk of Collision Off Singapore -Passage planning in confined waters ?

Confined water navigational guideline for ship : Confined waters means an area of the sea where the Width of the Safely Navigable Waterway is not more than about 2 miles, such as a Strait, considering the Draft of the vessel and Water Depth. The Master shall assume con of the vessel on the Bridge and shall increase officer(s) and/or lookout(s) as required

Approaching confined water

Coastal waters – Navigation area along the coast where freedom of course-setting to one side of the course line may be restricted, the other side of the course line, however, allows freedom of course-setting in any direction for a distance equivalent to at least 30 minutes of sailing at the relevant ship speed.

Passage planning in confined waters

For navigation in confined waters, the Master shall consider the following matters in planning a passage:

  1. Presence / Absence of special navigational rules and items to report.

  2. Information from the sailing directions, coast pilot, and so on.

  3. The draft of the vessel and the navigable sea area.

  4. The effect of squat and the need to keep sufficient under keel clearance.

  5. Expected tides and tidal currents.

  6. Weather conditions and countermeasures against restricted visibility.

  7. Use of navigation aids to maintain Continuous monitoring of vessels position, such as setting of Parallel Index line or ARPA Mapping, etc

  8. Passing time of danger points (Daylight / Night-time)

  9. The traffic density including the presence of fishing and the countermeasures

  10. The vessel's maneuvering ability

  11. Any necessity for adjustment of the vessel's speed.
Navigation in confined waters

Navigational guideline for ships in congested waters and The Check list for "Navigation in Confined Waters should be complied with

Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS)

TSS’s are frequently monitored by radar coverage by coastguard personnel, (e.g. Dover Strait). With AIS it is easy to identify vessels. Particular emphasis is therefore required regarding compliance with Rule 10 and in particular when crossing the traffic lanes. The rule requires:

(c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so, shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.

This is strictly enforced and vessel Masters have been fined in European Courts. It is essential that all Deck officers fully understand the requirements of Rule 10.

All passage plans must clearly show that the intention is to cross the lane at right angles or as close to as is practical. This minimizes the time a crossing vessel is in the lane irrespective of the tidal stream and should lead to a clear encounter situation with vessels passing through the main traffic lanes.

The UK MCA have issued MGN 364 which relates to the Dover Straits, however, the general separation scheme principles in Section 2 (Traffic Separation Schemes – Application of Rule 10) are equally applicable toall schemes and should be fully understood by Officers of the Watch.

Increased Risk of Collision Off Singapore

Vessels transiting through, or anchoring in, the territorial waters of Singapore, including the Eastern and Western outer port limit (OPL) anchorages of Singapore, are urged to be especially careful in the avoidance of collisions with other ships.

Evidence points to an increased risk of collision in this area where there is a large accumulation of vessels lying at anchor. A cargo vessel was recently in a situation, through no direct fault of her own, where she got entwined with another vessel that had dragged anchor.

It is important that while a vessel is at anchor in these areas that a full anchor watch is maintained at all times, with the vessel’s engines being kept at short notice of readiness. Bridge watch keeper(s) must not be distracted from their duties by other work or duties and must carefully monitor vessels both underway and at anchor that could pose a threat. If in doubt regarding another vessels or intentions, the Master must be called immediately, the main engine put on stand-by and the anchor party called to proceed forward immediately.

Masters should be aware that the Singapore Port (MPA) has no authority or control of the OPL anchorages. Caution should be used in selecting a suitable location to anchor, with due regard to the proximity of other anchored vessels, the strength and direction of prevailing tidal currents and the speed and direction of the wind at the time maneuvering takes place. Planning and execution of anchoring should be carried out in full compliance with local and international rules.

Maintain a good lookout and monitoring vessels in the vicinity is of course essential at all anchorages, and vessels must not hesitate to take action to avoid a collision, even though a vessel while at anchor is not classed as being ‘underway’.

Related Information

Safety of navigation for containership

What are the steering gear check item ? ....

How to avoid navigation in heavy weather ? ....

What are the conditions that should be reported to master while navigating ship ? ....

What are the safe navigational procedure for the officer of the watch ? ....

How to deal with engine or steering gear trouble ? ....

What is gyro failure and countermeasures ? ....

How to respond with engine trouble ? ....

How to deal with ships collision accident ? ....

What is navigation in restricted visibility ? ....

Passage planning guideline for cargo ships

Guide to watch officer for ships navigation ?

Collision accident handling checklist for ships

Emergency procedure for ships main engine failure

Emergency procedure for ships power failure

How to prevent oil pollution after colliding with another vessel

Fighting fire and countermeasures after a collision incident

Stranding handling checklist after colliding with another vessel

Guideline for salvage operation after a collision accident

Guideline for salvage of another ship after collision accident

Emergency check items to find a missing crew Salvage remunerations - benifits of L.O.F. contract or daily hire basis contract

More shipboard operation and safety matters

Safe anchoring - planning and operational guidance for cargo ships

Anchor watch check item - deck officers guideline ....

How to deal with a damaged anchor? ....

How to recover a lost anchor ? ....

What is stranding ? Investigation of possibility of self-refloating and urgency of danger ....

What are the emergency procedures for loss of anchor and chain? ....

In case of damage to anchor and chain when to claim for '' general average"? ....

Ships arrival in ports - check item prior entry

Ships navigation in restricted visibility check items

Rules of ships navigation in restricted visibility

Ships navigation in confined water - matters that require attention

Securing your vessel for sea passage - when to check and what to check

Collecting Information and Data for Passage Planning

Other info pages !

Ships Charterparties Related terms & guideline
Stevedores injury How to prevent injury onboard
Environmental issues How to prevent marine pollution
Cargo & Ballast Handling Safety Guideline
Reefer cargo handling Troubleshoot and countermeasures
DG cargo handling Procedures & Guidelines
Safety in engine room Standard procedures
Questions from user and feedback Read our knowledgebase
Home page is merely an informational site about various aspects of ships operation,maintenance procedure, prevention of pollution and many safety guideline. The procedures explained here are only indicative, not exhaustive in nature and one must always be guided by practices of good seamanship.

User feedback is important to update our database. For any comment or suggestions please Contact us
Site Use and Privacy - Read our privacy policy and site use information.
//Home //Terms and conditions of use

Copyright © 2015 All rights reserved.